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Arthur Dudney

Leverhulme Early Career Fellow

Dr Arthur Dudney is a Leverhulme Early Career Fellow at the Faculty of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies at Cambridge University, from August 2015 until August 2018. His three-year research project aims to write a history of Persian literary education, focussing on places like India where Persian was culturally important but not the local language of everyday life.

As a TORCH Early Career Fellow (Faculty of Oriental Studies, University of Oxford) he was pursuing new research on the history of philology in South Asia. The two-year project considered how philology—a traditional discipline combining what we would consider literary criticism, rhetoric, and linguistics—was imbricated in the exercise of political power in Delhi Sultanate and Mughal India. Persian, the primary language for the project, is effectively a dead language in the Indian Subcontinent today, but was in prior centuries a vibrant language of high culture and administration. This research made use of materials that are not typically the focus of intellectual history, such as dictionaries and works of literary criticism.

Dr Dudney received his PhD from Columbia University in 2013. His doctoral thesis, A Desire for Meaning: Ḳhān-i Ārzū’s Philology and the Place of India in the Eighteenth-Century Persianate World, is the first in-depth study of Sirāj al-Dīn ʿAlī Ḳhān Ārzū (d. 1756) in English. Ārzū was not only a leading philologist of his time in the Persian tradition, but is also regarded as the first teacher of Urdu, that is, of the vernacular literature of Delhi. The thesis begins the process of re-interpreting the well-worn paradigm of the early-eighteenth century decline of Mughal society through the seeming incongruity of the robustness of the philological tradition of the same period. It argues that our understanding of the function of literature at that time has been shaped by anachronistic concerns that can be dispelled by engaging with Ārzū’s works. In particular, contemporary debates over innovation in poetry have come to be understood in unhelpfully nationalist terms as confrontations between Indians and Iranians. Likewise, our understanding of the relationship of Persian with Indian vernacular languages has often been coloured by the fact that Persian was eventually supplanted by these vernaculars in South Asia, which has led many to claim that Persian in India was inauthentic and its replacement by “indigenous” languages was inevitable. The research draws upon examples from Latinate Europe to contextualise Persianate South Asia and to rethink claims of early-modern Europe’s socio-cultural uniqueness. In many cases, nearly identical social processes have been hailed as progress towards modernity in the Western context while being presented as evidence of social and political decline in the Indian context.

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